A Many-Faceted Gem: Decline and Rebirth of Family Medicine.

Un joyau aux multiples facettes:

le déclin et la renaissance de la médecine familiale


Topics in this page / Sujets ici


General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Antiquity to the Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières

Australia and Oceania / Australie et Océanie

Britain / Iles Britanniques



United States / Etats Unis


General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Arya, Neil, Christine Gibson, David Ponka, et al. Family Medicine around the World: Overview by Region. The Besrour Papers: a series on the state of family medicine in the world.  63.6

Cubaka, Vincent K., Clayton Dyck, Russell Dawe, et al. A Global Picture of Family Medicine: the View from a WONCA Storybooth. BMC Family Practice 20 (2019): article no. 129

Dinges, Martin, Kay Peter Jankrift, Sabine Schlegelmilch, Michael Stolberg, eds. Medical Practice, 1600-1900: Physicians and Their Patients, trans. Margot Saar. Brill Rodopi, 2016.

Freidson, Eliot. Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

Gelfand, Toby. The Decline of the Ordinary Practitioner and the Rise of the Modern Medical Profession. In Doctors, Patients, and Society: Power and Author­ity in Medical Care, eds. M. Staum and D. E. Larsen, 105–29. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1981.

Geyman, John P., and John Fry, eds. Family Practice: an International Perspective in Developed Countries. Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1983.

Hudson, Geoffrey L. Introduction, in C. Overy and E.M. Tansey eds., Historical Perspectives on Rural Medicine: The Proceedings of Two Witness Seminars. Wellcome Witnesses to Contemporary Medicine, Vol. 61. London: Queen Mary University, 2017.

Shorter, Edward. Doctors and Their Patients: A Social History. New Brunswick, U.S.A.: Transaction Publishers, 1991.

Weisz, George. Divide and Conquer: A Comparative History of Medical Specialization. New York; Oxford University Press, 2003.


Antiquity to the Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières

Israelowich, Ido. Patients and Healers in the High Roman Empire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015.

York, William H. Health and Wellness in Antiquity through the Middle Ages. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood, 2012.


On Australia and New Zealand

Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, 1958-1978. Jolimont, Vic.: RCGP, 1979.

Wright-St Clair, R. E., A History of General Practice and of the Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners. Wellington, N.Z.: The College, 1989.


Britain / Iles Britanniques

Ashworth, Bryan. The Bramwells of Edinburgh: A Medical Dynasty. Edinburgh: Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 1986.

Blythe, Max. Almost a Legend.: John Fry: Leading Reformer of General Practice. London: Royal Society of Medicine, 2007.

Carter, Yvonne H., and Amanda Howe. Fifty Years of Research in General Practice. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical, 2003.

Collings, Joseph S. General Practice in England Today. Lancet 255 (1950): 555–85.

Cook, Harold J. The Trials of an Ordinary Doctor: Joannes Groenvelt in Seventeenth-Century London. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Cope, Zachary. The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London and the Evolution of the Family Doctor. London: Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, 196?.

Cule, John. A Doctor for All the People: Two Thousand Years of General Practice in Brit­ain. London: Update Books, 1980.

Daniels, Benjamin. Confessions of a GP: life, Death and Earwax. London: Friday Project, 2010.

Day, Patricia. The State, the NHS, and General Practice. Journal of Public Health Policy 13 (1992): 165–79.

Digby, Anne. The Evolution of British General Practice 1850-1948. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Ditchburn, Robin. North Ronaldsay Doctor, the Life of an Island GP. The Orcadian Kirkwall Press, 2010.

Ditchburn, Robin. Shetland Doctor: the Life of an Island GP. Lulu Press, 2016.

Fry, John. General Practice and Primary Health Care, 1940s-1980s. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, 1988.

Fulton, Henry L. Dr. John Moore, 1729-1802: a Life in Medicine, Travel, and Revolution. University of Delaware Press, 2015.

Gibson, Ronald. The Family Doctor: His Life and History. London; Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1981.

Gray, Denis Pereira. History of the Royal College of General Practitioners: The First Forty Years. British Journal of General Practice 42 (1992): 29–35.

Hainsworth, Eric. The Doctors of Queensbury: Two Centuries of General Practice in a Yorkshire Village. [Plymouth?]: E.J. Rickard, 1993.

Howie, John, and Michael Whitfield, eds. Academic General Practice in the UK Medical Schools, 1948--2000: a Short History. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011.

Humphreys, R. C. A History of Research in General Practice in Wales, 1950-1992. Swansea: Welsh Council of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 1994.

Jacyna, L. S. Philosophic Whigs: Medicine, Science, and Citizenship in Edinburgh, 1789-1848. London; New York: Routledge, 1994.

Jellinek, E.H. The Russells of Edinburgh: A Medical Dynasty. Proceedings of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 31 (2001): 342-51.

Johnson, Alastair. The Diary of Thomas Giordani Wright, Newcastle Doctor, 1826-1829. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2001.

Kmietowicz, Z. A century of general practice. BMJ 332.7532 (2006): 39-40.

Lane, Joan, John Hall, and Melvin Earles. John Hall and His Patients: The Medical Practice of Shakespeare's Son-in-Law. Stratford-upon-Avon: The Shakespeare Birthday Trust, 1996.

Lawrence, Christopher. Medicine in the Making of Modern Britain. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Loudon, Irvine, John Horder, and Charles Webster, eds. General Practice under the National Health Service, 1948-1997. London; New York: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1998.

Loudon, Irvine. Medical Care and the General Practitioner, 1750-1850. Oxford; Toronto: Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press, 1986.

Mair, Alex. Sir James Mackenzie, M.D., 1853-1925; General Practitioner. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1973.

Marland, Hilary. Medicine in Wakefield and Huddersfield, 1780–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

McWhinney, Ian. William Pickles Lecture: The Importance of Being Different. British Journal of General Practice 46 (1996): 433–6.

McWhinney, Ian. General Practice as an Academic Discipline: Reflections after a Visit to the United States. Lancet 287 (1966): 419–23. See also Lancet 289 (1967): 91–6.

Osborne, Thomas. Epidemiology as an Investigative Paradigm: The College of General Practitioners in the 1950s. Social Science and Medicine 38 (1994): 317– 26.

Pairman, Thomas Wyld, A Scottish Country Doctor, 1818-1873: Robert Pairman of Biggar, ed. Evelyn Wright. East Linton, East Lothian, Scotland: Tuckwell, 2003.

Pocock, Sally J. 18 Lemon Street: Two Centuries of a Cornish Medical Practice. Truro, Cornwall: Dr. Stuart Vowles & Partners, 2004.

Sigsworth, Eric and Valerie Brady. The Ledger of William Elmhirst, Surgeon and Apothecary 1769-1773. Hull: Humberside Polytechnic, School of Social and Professional Studies, 1985.

Stewart, Marguerite A GP in London: 1939-1945. British Journal of General Practice 57.538 (2007): 418-21.

Stobart, Anne. Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.

Stone, M.C. James Mackenzie Lecture: The Most Alluring of Occupations. Practitioner 216 (1976): 77–89.

Waddington, I. General Practitioners and Consultants in Early Nineteenth-Century England: The Sociology of an Intra-Professional Conflict. London: Croom Helm, 1977.

White-Cooper, Ronald, and Deborah White-Cooper. Call the Doctor: a Country GP between the Wars: Tales of Courage, Hardship and Hope. London: Pan Books, 2014.

Withey, Alun. Physick and the Family: Health, Medicine and Care in Wales, 1600-1750. Manchester University Press, 2011.



Armstrong, Jackson Webster. Seven Eggs Today: The Diaries of Mary Armstrong, 1859 and 1869. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2004

Bernier, Jacques. La médecine au Québec: naissance et évolution d’une profession. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval, 1989.

Billington, Keith [a nurse]. House Calls by Dogsled: Six Years in an Arctic Outpost Madeira Park, BC: Lost Moose, 2008

Campbell, C.M. The Maintenance of Competence Programme of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (MOCOMP). Postgraduate Medical Journal 72, suppl. 1 (1996): S41–2.

Clute, Kenneth F. The General Practitioner: A Study of Medical Education and Practice in Ontario and Nova Scotia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963.

Connor, J.T.H. “A Sort of Felo-De-Se”: Eclecticism, Related Medical Sects, and Their Decline in Victorian Ontario. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65 (1991): 503–27.

Cooke, Nathalie and Kathryn Harvey, eds. The Johnson Family Treasury: a Collection of Household Recipes and Remedies, 1741-1848. Oakville, Ontario: Rock's Mills Press, 2015.

Curwen, Eliot. Labrador Odyssey: The Journal and Photographs of Eliot Curwen on the Second Voyage of Wilfred Grenfell, 1893, ed. Ronald Rompkey. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1996.

Duffin, Jacalyn. Langstaff: A Nineteenth-Century Medical Life. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Duffin, Jacalyn. Salon: McWhinney’s gift: academic family medicine,” CMAJ, 185.4 (2013): 360.

Duncan, Allan. Medicine, Madams, and Mounties: Stories of a Yukon Doctor, 1933– 1947. Vancouver: Raincoast Books, 1989.

Falk, William Andre. The Curious Family Doctor: Research by Family Doctors in Canada in the Early Years. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford, 2001.

Geggie, H.J.G. The Extra Mile: Medicine in Rural Quebec, 1885–1965, rev. ed., eds. Norma and Stuart Geggie. Wakefield, Que., 2007.

Geoffrey L. Hudson and Marion Maar. Faculty Analysis of Distributed Medical Education in Northern Canadian Aboriginal Communities, Rural and Remote Health 14.4 (2014): 2664.

Gidney, R.D., and W.P.J. Millar. The Origins of Organized Medicine in Ontario, 1850–1869. In Health, Disease, and Medicine: Essays in Canadian History, ed. Charles G. Roland, 65–95. Toronto: Hannah Institute for the History of Medi­cine, 1982.

Gidney, R.D., and W.P.J. Millar. Professional Gentlemen; The Professions in Nineteenth-Century Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Groves, Abraham. All in a Day’s Work: Leaves from a Doctor’s Casebook. Toronto: Macmillan, 1934.

Hattie, W.H. Looking into the Gloom, CMAJ 22.4 (1930): 548.

Hill, Malcolm, R.G. McAuley, W.B. Spaulding, and Margaret Wilson. Validity of the Term ‘Family Doctor’: A Limited Study in Hamilton, Ontario. Canadian Medical Association Journal 98 (1968): 734–8.

Holling, Stanley A. Medicine for Heroes: a Neglected Part of Pioneer Life. Erin, Ont.: Mississauga South Historical Society and Boston Mills Press, 1981.

Hutchison, Brian, Jean-Frederic Levesque, Erin Strumpf, and Natalie Coyle. Primary Health Care in Canada: Systems in Motion. Milbank Quarterly 89.2 (2011): 256–288.

Jack, Donald. Rogues, Rebels, and Geniuses: The Story of Canadian Medicine. Toronto and Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.

Jackson, Mary Percy. Suitable for the Wilds: Letters from Northern Alberta, 1929–1931, ed. Janice Dickin McGinnis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.

Johnston, William Victor. Before the Age of Miracles: Memoirs of a Country Doctor. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1972.

MacLean, Hugh. Recollections and Reminiscences: A Pioneer Prairie Doctor. Saskatchewan History 15 (1962): 58–66.

MacNab, Elizabeth. A Legal History of the Health Professions in Ontario. Toronto: Queen’s Printer, 1970.

McWhinney, Ian R. General Practice in Canada. International Journal of Health Services 2 (May 1972): 229–37.

Mullally, Sasha. History, Memory and Twentieth-Century Medical Life Writing: Unpacking a Cape Breton Country Doctor's Black Bag. Essays in Honour of Michael Bliss: Figuring the Social, eds. E. Heaman, et al., 435-70. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

Norris, John. The Country Doctor in British Columbia. B.C. Studies 49 (1981– 2): 15–39.

Roland, Charles G. The Diary of a Canadian Country Physician: Jonathan Wool­verton (1881–1883). Medical History 14 (1971): 168–80.

Roland, Charles G., and Bohodar Rubashewsky. The Economic Status of the Practice of Dr. Harmaunus Smith in Wentworth County, Ontario, 1826–1867. Canadian Bulletin of Medicial History 5 (1988): 29–49.

Romano, Terrie. Professional Identity and the Nineteenth-Century Ontario Medical Profession. Histoire Sociale/Social History 23 (1995): 77–98.

Rompkey, Ronald. The Labrador Memoir of Dr. Harry Paddon, 1912-1938. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Rusted, Nigel. Its Devil Deep Down There. St John’s, Nfld: Creative Publishers, 1987.

Shephard, David A. E. Island Doctor: John Mackieson and Medicine in Nineteenth-Century Prince Edward Island. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Shephard, David A.E. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: The Pursuit of Unity. Ottawa: RCPSC, 1985.

Sherwin, Allan. Bridging Two Peoples Chief Peter E. Jones, 1843–1909. Waterloo: WLU Press, 2012.

Shortt, S.E.D. “Before the Age of Miracles”: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of Gen­eral Practice in Canada, 1890–1940. In Health Disease and Medicine: Essays in Canadian History, ed. Charles G. Roland, 123–52. Toronto: Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine, 1984.

Solomon, Stan. Patients First: The Story of Family Medicine in Canada: The College of Family Physicians of Canada. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 2004.

Strasser, Roger, John C. Hogenbirk, Bruce Minore, David C. Marsh, Sue Berry, William G. Mccready, and Lisa Graves. Transforming health professional education through social accountability: Canada's Northern Ontario School of Medicine. Medical Teacher 35.6 (2013): 490-496.

Strasser, Roger, John Hogenbirk, Kristen Jacklin, Marion Maar, Geoffrey L. Hudson, Wayne Warry, Hoi Cheu, Tim Dube, and Dean Carson. Community Engagement: A Central Feature of NOSM’s Socially Accountable Distributed Medical Education, Canadian Medical Education Journal, 2018, 9 (1).

Taylor, George Oliver. Physic: Frontier Medicine in Ontario’s North. Toronto, 2020.

Tolmie, W.F. The Journals of William Fraser Tolmie: Physician and Fur Trader. Van­couver: Mitchell Press, 1963.

Tunis, Barbara. Dr. James Latham (c. 1734-1799): Pioneer inoculator in Canada. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 1 (1984): 1-11.

Urquhart, J.A. The Most Northerly Practice in Canada. 1935. Reprinted Cana­dian Medical Association Journal 147 (1992): 1760–1.

Waitzkin, H. One and a Half Centuries of Forgetting and Rediscovering: Virchow’s Lasting Contributions to Social Medicine. Social Medicine 1.1 (2006): 5-10.

Wolfe, Samuel, and Robin F. Badgley. The Family Doctor: Has He Disappeared? Can We Get Him Back? Toronto: Macmillan, 1973.

Woods, David. Strength in Study: An Informal History of the College of Family Physi­cians of Canada. Toronto: College of Family Physicians of Canada, 1979.



Ackerman, Evelyn B. Health Care in the Parisian Countryside, 1800-1914. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1990.

Ayzac, Charles. Cinquante ans médecin en Quercy Périgord. Toulouse: L'Union ; Ch. Ayzac, 1993.

Bressler-Campana, Juliette. Médecin généraliste à l'ancienne. Paris: L'Harmattan. 2017.

Chabot, J.M. Family practice et médecine générale. Revue du Praticien. 52.16 (2002): 1799-800.

Coutant, Daniel et François Tuffreau. La médecine générale, une spécialité d'avenir: des premières conventions médicales aux maisons de santé. Rennes: Presses de l'École des hautes études en santé publique; 2016.

Doldé, Jean-Jacques. Souvenirs d'un médecin strasbourgeois du XVIIIème siècle: Jean-Jacques Doldé (1717-1789), trad. et ed. Ernest Wickersheimer. Rixheim: 1907.

Dufilho, André. Docteur, un cheval vous attend: Souvenirs d'un médecin au Pays basque. Paris: Table ronde, 1979.

Fiessinger, Ch. Souvenirs d'un médecin de campagne. Paris: Libraire de la Revue Française, 1933.

Ganche, Edouard. Mon début dans la médecine: Un médecin de campagne en 1889. Paris: Denoël et Steele, 1936.

Hidier, J. Médecine de famille en milieu rural dans l'Ouest de la France (1908-1920): chronique de mortalité ». Histoire des Sciences Médicales 43.1 (2009): 121-4.

Hildreth, Martha L. Doctors and families in France, 1880-1930: the cultural reconstruction of medicine. Clio Medica 25 (1994):189-209.

Hildreth, Martha L. Doctors and Families in France, 1880–1930: The Cultural Reconstruction of Medicine. In French Medical Culture in the Nineteenth Century. Clio Medica 25, eds. Ann La Berge and Mordechai Feingold, 189–209. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1994.

Imbault-Huart, Marie-Josée. Le medecin de famille, 1850-1950. Bulletin de la Societe Libanaise d'Histoire de la Médecine 3 (1994): 46-53.

Jurdant, Baudouin. La médecine « scientifique serait-elle ruine de l'art ? À travers quelques récits autobiographiques de médecins et chirurgiens. Sociétés & Représentations 2.28 (2009): 119 -134.

Léonard, Jacques. La France médicale: médecins et malades au XIXe siècle. Paris: Gallimard, 1978.

Léonard, Jacques. La vie quotidienne du médecin de province au XIXe siècle. Paris: Hachette, 1977.

Maurange, Gabriel. Livre de raison d'un médecin parisien 1865-1939. Paris: Plon, 1938.

Mouchès, Jean-Claude. Les carnets du docteur Cartier: Chronique de médecine rurale ordinaire. Pau: Pyrémonde, 2006.

Ramsey, Matthew. Professional and Popular Medicine in France, 1770–1830: The Social World of Medical Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Renaudie, M. Etre generaliste il y a quatre siècles. Réalisme et fiction. Histoire des Sciences Médicales. 18.2 (1984): 173-9.

Rochefort, R., et J. Devevey. Les jeunes medecins liberaux. Evolution de 1979 à 1982. Cahiers de Sociologie et de Démographie Médicales 24.2 (1984): 97-123.

Salvatore, Ornella. Histoire vivante de la médecine: si la médecine générale m'était contée. Paris: Ellipses, 2017.

Vielledent, Georges. Médecin de campagne, une vie. Paris: Calman-Lévy, 2014.

Weston, Robert. A Country Doctor in the French Revolution: Marie-François-Bernardin Ramel. New York: Routledge, 2020.



United States / Etats Unis

Ackerman, Evelyn Bernette. The Activities of a Country Doctor in New York State: Dr. Elias Cornelius of Somers, 1794–1803. Historical Reflections/Réflexions historiques 9 (1982): 181–93.

Adams, David P. Community and Professionalization: General Practitioners and Ear, Nose, and Throat Specialists in Cincinnati, 1945–1947. Bulletin of the His­tory of Medicine 68 (1994): 664–84.

Barken, Frederick M. Out of Practice: Fighting for Primary Care Medicine in America. London: ILR Press, 2011.

Berman, Paul. Medical Practice in the Connecticut River Valley, 1650-1750. Historical Journal of Massachusetts 18 (1990): 27-36.

Borst, Charlotte G. Catching Babies: The Professionalization of Childbirth, 1870– 1920. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Cantafio, Ralph. Whatever Happened to the General Practitioners? Commack, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers, 1997.

Coombs, Jan. Rural Medical Practice in the 1880s: A View from Central Wisconsin. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 64 (1990): 34-62.

Coulter, Harris L. Divided Legacy: The Conflict between Homeopathy and the American Medical Association. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1973.

Crellin, Paul I., and J. K. Crellin. By the Patient and Not by the Book: Constancy and Change in Small Town Doctoring: Based on the Recollections of Dr. I. Hayden Lutterloh. Durham, N.C.: Acorn Press, 1988.

Crenner, Christopher. Private Practice in the Early Twentieth-Century Medical Office of Dr. Richard Cabot. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Doherty, William J., Charles E. Christianson, and Marvin B. Sussman, eds. Family Medicine: The Maturing of a Discipline. New York: Haworth Press, 1987.

Estes, J. Worth, and David M. Goodman. The Changing Humors of Portsmouth: The Medical Biography of an American Town, 1623–1983. Boston: Count­way Library of Medicine, 1986.

Geyman, John P. Family Practice in Evolution: Progress, Problems, and Projec­tions. New England Journal of Medicine 298 (1978): 593–601.

Goldner, Fred. Practice, Practice, Practice: Slices of Life from a Career in Medicine. Nashville, Tennessee: Fred Goldner, 2013.

Haddy, R.I., et al. A Comparison of Rural Family Practice in the 1930s and Today. Journal of Family Practice 36 (Jan. 1993): 65–9.

Haggerty, Robert J. The University and Primary Medical Care. New England Journal of Medicine 281 (1969): 416–22.

Harstad, P. T. Frontier Medicine in the Territory of Wisconsin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.

Hertzler, Arthur E. The Horse and Buggy Doctor. New York and London: Harper, 1938.

Kahn, Richard J. Diseases in the District of Maine 1772 – 1820: The Unpublished Work of Jeremiah Barker, a Rural Physician in New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

Leavitt, Judith Walzer. Fielding H. Garrison Lecture. “A Worrying Profession”: The Domestic Environment of Medical Practice in Mid-Nineteenth-Century America. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 69 (1995): 1–29.

McDonell, Katherine Mandusic. The Journals of William A. Lindsay: An Ordinary Nineteenth-Century Physician’s Surgical Cases. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1989.

McNamara, Robert Francis, and Thomas A. McNamara. Good Old Doctor Mac: Thomas A. McNamara: Family Physician, 1856-1927. Utica, N.Y.: Devon Press, 2004.

McPhee, John. Heirs of General Practice. New York: Farrar Strauss Giroux, 1986.

Mitchell, George T. Dr. George: An Account of the Life of a Country Doctor. Medical Humanities Series. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994.

Reid, Richard M., ed. Practicing Medicine in a Black Regiment: the Civil War Diary of Burt G. Wilder, 55th Massachusetts. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010.

Reiser, Stanley J. The Coming Resurgence of the Generalist in Medicine: Its Technological and Conceptual Basis. Pharos 58 (1995): 8–11.

Rothstein, William G. American Medical Schools and the Practice of Medicine. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Schafer, James A. Jr. The Business of Private Medical Practice: Doctors, Specialization, and Urban Change in Philadelphia, 1900-1940. New Brunswick; London: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

Simons, J. Hume, The Planter's Guide, and Family Book of Medicine: for the Instruction and Use of Planters, Families, Country People, and All Others who May Be out of the Reach of Physicians, or Unable to Employ them with Particular Directions respecting Asiatic Cholera, by a Charleston Physician. Charleston: University of South Carolina, 2011.

Stanard, John R. Caring for America: The Story of Family Practice. Virginia Beach, Va.: Donning Co. and American Academy of Family Physicians, 1997.

Stepansky, Paul E. The Last Family Doctor: Remembering My Father's Medicine. Keynote Books, 2011.

Stephens, G. Gayle. Basis of Family Practice. Tuscon, Ariz.: Winter Publishing, 1982.

Stevens, Rosemary A. The Challenge of Specialism in the 1900s. In The American Medical Ethics Revolution, eds. Robert B. Baker, et al., 70-90. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Stowe, Steven M. Obstetrics and the Work of Doctoring in the Mid-Nineteenth-Century American South. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 64 (1990): 540-66.

Truman, Stanley R. The History of the Founding of the American Academy of General Practice. St Louis, Mo.: Warren H. Green and AAGP, 1969. See also

Wilmoth, L. Harmon. The Doctor Rode Horseback: Fifty-Two Years of Medical Service in the Rocky Mountain West. Lander, Wyo.: L. H. Wilmoth, 1993.