First Do No Harm: History of Treatment, Pharmacology and Pharmaceuticals

D’abord, ne pas nuire: antécédents de traitements, pharmacologie et produits pharmaceutiques


Topics on this page / Sujets ici

General / ouvrages généraux

Antiquity to Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières

Herbals and Folk Medicine /Médecine botanique et populaire

Pharma Industry/ Industrie pharmaceutique

Experiments, Clinical Trials and Evidence-Based Medicine /Expériences, essais cliniques, et Evidence-Based Médecine

Specific Drugs / Quelques médicaments

Britain / Iles Britanniques



United States / Etats Unis



General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Ackerknecht, Erwin H. Therapeutics from the Primitives to the Twentieth Century. New York: Hafner, 1973 [citation on p. 2].

Belofsky, Nathan. Strange Medicine: A Shocking History of Real Medical Practices Through the Ages 2013.

Brunel, Jules. Antibiosis from Pasteur to Fleming. Journal of the History of Medi­cine and Allied Sciences 6 (1951): 287–301.

Cordes, Eugene H. Hallelujah Moments: Tales of Drug Discovery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014

Crellin, John K. A Social History of Medicines in the Twentieth Century: To Be Taken Three Times a Day.  New York: Pharmaceutical Press, 2004.

Duffin, Christopher J., R.T.J. Moody, and C. Gardner-Thorpe A History of Geology and Medicine. London: The Geological Society, 2013.

Gaudilliere, Jean-Paul, and Volker Hess, eds. Ways of Regulating Drugs in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Geissler, P. Wenzel and Catherine Molyneux, eds. Evidence, Ethos, and Experiment: The Anthropology and History of Medical Research in Africa. New York: Berghahn Books, 2011.

Gerald, Michael C. The Drug Book: from Arsenic to Xanax, 250 Milestones in the History of Drugs. New York, NY: Sterling Pub., 2013.

Gerald, Michael C., and Gloria E. Gerald. The Biology Book: from the Origin of Life to Epigenetics, 250 Milestones in the History of Biology. New York: Sterling, 2015.

Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke, Hilary Marland, and Hans de Waardt, eds. Illness and Healing Alternatives in Western Europe. London; New York: Routledge, 1997.

Gradmann, Christoph, and Jonathan Simon, eds. Evaluating and Standardizing Therapeutic Agents, 1890-1950. Basingstoke, Hampshire: New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Hall, William, Anthony McDonnell, and Jim O’Neill. Superbugs: An Arms Race against Bacteria. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2018.

Illich, Ivan. Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. London: Caldar and Boyars, 1975.

Jütte, Robert, Guenter B. Risse, and John Woodward, eds. Culture, Knowledge, and Healing: Historical Perspectives of Homeopathic Medicine in Europe and North America. Sheffield: European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Publications, 1998.

Kang, Lyndia, and Nate Pedersen. Quackery: A Brief History of the Worst Ways to Cure Everything. Workman Publishing Company, 2017.

Kim, Kyu-Won, Jae Kyung Roh, Hee-Jun Wee, and Chan Kim. Cancer Drug Discovery: Science and History. Dordrecht: Springer, 2016.

King, Helen. Hippocrates Now: The ‘Father of Medicine’ in the Internet Age. London; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.

Klantschnig, Gernot, Charles H. Ambler, and Neil Carrier, eds. Drugs in Africa: Histories and Ethnographies of Use, Trade, and Control. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Kremers, Edward, and George Urdang. Kremers and Urdang’s History of Pharmacy. 4th ed., ed. Glenn Sonnedecker, Madison: American Institute for the History of Pharmacy, 1986.

Krueger, Gretchen Marie. Hope and Suffering: Children, Cancer, and the Paradox of Experimental Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

Leake, Chauncey D. An Historical Account of Pharmacology to the Twentieth Century. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas, 1975.

Mann, John. The Elusive Magic Bullet: The Search for the Perfect Drug. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

McEvoy, John G. The Historiography of the Chemical Revolution: Patterns of Interpretation in the History of Science. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2010.

Monnais, Laurence. The Colonial Life of Pharmaceuticals: Medicines and Modernity in Vietnam Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Mungia, Ryan and Jim Heiman. Protect Yourself: Venereal Disease Posters of World War II. Los Angeles: Boyo Press, 2014.

Ooms, Gorik, and Johanna Hanefeld. Threat of compulsory licences could increase access to essential medicines. BMJ 365 (2019): I2098.

Parascandola, John. Studies in the History of Modern Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Farnham, Surrey, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate/Variorum, 2012.

Parascandola, John. The History of Antibiotics: A Symposium. Madison, Wis.: Ameri­can Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 1980.

Patil, Popat N. Discoveries in Pharmacological Sciences. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2012.

Porter, Roy, and Mikulas Teich, eds. Drugs and Narcotics in History. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Prüll, Cay-Rüdiger, Andreas-Holger Maehle, and Robert Francis Halliwell. A Short History of the Drug Receptor Concept. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Quirke, Viviane, and Judy Slinn, eds. Perspectives on Twentieth-Century Pharmaceuticals. Oxford; New York: Peter Lang, 2010.

Rance, Caroline. What the Apothecary Ordered: Questionable Cures through the Ages. Oxford: Old House Books & Maps, 2014.

Rappuoli, R. From Pasteur to genomics: progress and challenges in infectious diseases. Nature Medicine 10.11 (2004):1177-85.

Rees, Anthony R., Science and the Regulation of Biological Products: from a Rich History to a Challenging Future. Rockville, MD: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 2002.

Schlich, Thomas, and Ulrich Tröhler, eds. The Risks of Medical Innovation: Risk Perception and Assessment in Historical Context. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Schwerin, Alexander von, Heiko Stoff and Bettina Wahrig, eds. Biologics: A History of Agents Made from Living Organisms in the Twentieth Century. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. 2016.

Shapiro, Arthur K., and Elaine Shapiro. The Powerful Placebo Effect: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Shorter, Edward. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Sismondo, Sergio, and Jeremy A. Greene, eds. The Pharmaceutical Studies Reader. Chichester, UK: Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2015.

Tauber, Alfred I. and Scott H.  Podolsky. The Generation of Diversity: Clonal Selection Theory and the Rise of Molecular Immunology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Thackray, Arnold. Private Science: Biotechnology and the Rise of the Molecular Sciences. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Wertheimer, Albert I. and Thomas M. Santella. Innovation and the WHO's essential medicines list: Giving credit where credit is due. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 3.1 (2007): 137-144.


Antiquity to Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières

Bari, A. Graeco-Arab Medicine in Iran During the Safwi Period. Studies in the History of Medicine and Science 17 (2001): 39-49.

Bennett, David. Medicine and Pharmacy in Byzantine Hospitals: a Study of the ExtFormularies. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Conrad, Lawrence L., et Sophie Mayoux. Histoire de la lutte contre la maladie; la tradition médicale occidentale de l'Antiquité à la fin du siècle des Lumières. Le Plessis-Robinson: Institut synthélabo pour le progrès de la connaissance, 1999.

Debru, Armelle, ed. Galen on Pharmacology: Philosophy, History, and Medicine. Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997.

Dendle, Peter, and Alain Touwaide. Health and Healing from the Medieval Garden. Woodbridge, UK; Rochester, NY: Boydell, 2008.

Duke, James A., Peggy-Ann K. Duke, and Judith L. duCellier. Duke’s Handbook of Medicinal Plants of the Bible. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008.

Eamon, William. The Professor of Secrets: Mystery, Medicine, and Alchemy in Renaissance Italy. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2010.

Francia, Susan and Anne Stobart, eds. Critical Approaches to the History of Western Herbal Medicine: from Classical Antiquity to the Early Modern Period. London: Bloomsbury, 2014.

Georganta, Konstantina, Fabienne Collignon and Anne-Marie Millim, eds. The Apothecary’s Chest: Magic, Art and Medication. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Pub, 2009.

Givens, Jean A., Karen M. Reeds, and Alain Touwaide. Visualizing Medieval Medicine and Natural History, 1200-1550. London; New York: Routledge, 2016.

Hansen, Bert. Nicole Oresme and the Marvels of Nature. Toronto: Pontifical Institute, 1985.

Hansen, Bert. Science and Magic, Chapter 15 in Science in the Middle Ages, ed. David C. Lindberg. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

Hansen, Bert. The complementarity of magic and science before the Scientific Revolution," American Scientist 74.2 (1986): 128-36.

Kudlien, Fridolf, and Richard J. Durling, eds. Galen’s Method of Healing: Proceed­ings of the 1982 Galen Symposium, Christian-Albrechts Universität. Leiden and New York: Brill, 1991.

Lucore, Sandra K. and Monika Trümper, eds. Greek Baths and Bathing Culture: New Discoveries and Approaches. Leuven: Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2013.

Moran, Bruce T. Distilling Knowledge: Alchemy, Chemistry, and the Scientific Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006.

Panese, F. Doctrine des signatures et technologies graphiques au seuil de la modernité. Gesnerus 60.1-2 (2003): 6-24.

Riddle, John M. Dioscorides on Pharmacy and Medicine. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985.

Rider, Catherine. Medical Magic and the Church in Thirteenth-Century England. Social History of Medicine, 24.1 (2011): 92–107.

Saad, Bashar and Omar Said. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal Medicine: Traditional System, Ethics, Safety, Efficacy, and Regulatory Issues. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley, 2011.

Schmid, Susanne, and Barbara Schmidt-Haberkamp, eds. Drink in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries London: Brookfield, VT: Pickering & Chatto, 2014.

Teigen, P. M. Taste and Quality in 15th- and 16th-Century Galenic Pharmacology. Pharmacy in History 29 (1987): 60-8.

Teigen, P. M. This Sea of Simples; the Materia Medica in Three Early English Receipt Books. Pharmacy in History 22 (1980): 104-8.

Totelin, Laurence M. V. Hippocratic Recipes: Oral and Written Transmission of Pharmacological Knowledge in Fifth- and Fourth-Century Greece. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2008.

Touwaide, Alain. A Census of Greek Medical Manuscripts: from Byzantium to the Renaissance London; New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.

Touwaide, Alain. Byzantine Medical Manuscripts: towards a New Catalogue, with a Specimen for an Annotated Checklist of Manuscripts based on an Index of Diels’ Catalogue. Bruxelles: Fondation Byzantine, 2009.

Touwaide, Alain. Healing Renal Diseases in Antiquity: Plants from Dioscorides’ De materia medica, with Illustrations from Greek and Arabic Manuscripts, A.D. 512-15th century. Cosenza, Italy: Editoriale Bios, 2000.

Woodall, John. The Surgions Mate: The First Compendium on Naval Medicine, Surgery, and Drug Therapy (London 1617), ed. Irmgard Müller. Switzerland: Birkhäuser, 2016


Herbals and Folk Medicine / Médicine botanique et populaire

Adams, John, and Stuart Forbes, eds. The Syon Abbey Herbal: The Last Monastic Herbal in England, c. AD 1517. London: AMCD, 2015.

Anʻam, Muḥammad Akbar. Folk medicine of Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh. Srinagar: Gulshan Books; Shiekh Mohammad Usman & Sons, 2011.

Arber, Agnes Robertson. Herbals, Their Origin and Evolution: A Chapter in the History of Botany, 1470–1670. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Brohard, Yvan, et Jean-François Leblond. Une histoire des médecines populaires: herbes, magie, prières. Paris: Université Paris Descartes: Éditions de La Martinière, 2013.

Clayton, Martin, Luigi Guerrini and Alejandro de Ávila. Flora: The Aztec Herbal. London: The Royal Collection and Harvey Miller Publishers, 2009.

Davis, E. W. Ethnobotany: an Old Practice, a New Discipline. Portland, Oregon; Dioscorides Press, 1995

Flores Farfán, José Antonio, and Jan G.R. Elferink. The Aztec Mind: Nahuatl Ethnobotany, Mental Health and Psychoactive Drug among Ancient Mexicans. Munich: LINCOM GmbH, 2015.

Foster, Laura A. Reinventing Hoodia: Peoples, Plants, and Patents in South Africa. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2017.

Griffith, M. Patrick, and David H. Lorence, eds. Honoring Beekman and Rumphius: proceedings of the 2011 David Fairchild Medal for Plant Exploration Symposium. Kalaheo, HI: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2014.

Stobart, Anne. Household Medicine in Seventeenth-Century England. London: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2016.

Storl, Wolf-Dieter. The Herbal Lore of Wise Women and Wortcunners: The Healing Power of Medicinal Plants. North Atlantic Books, 2012.

Van Arsdall, Anne. Medieval Herbal Remedies: The Old English Herbarium and Anglo-Saxon Medicine. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Walker, Timothy Dale. Doctors, Folk Medicine, and the Inquisition: The Repression of Magical Healing in Portugal during the Enlightenment. Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2005.


Pharmaceutical Industry / Industrie pharmaceutique

Angell, Marcia. The Truth About the Drug Companies: How They Deceive Us and What to Do. New York City: Random House, 2005.

Cleary, Ekaterina Galkina, et al. Contribution of NIH funding to new drug approvals 2010–2016. PNAS 115.10 (2018) 2329-34.

Dutfield, Graham. That High Design of Purest Gold: a Critical History of the Pharmaceutical Industry, from 1880 to 2020. Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific, 2020.

Eban, Katherine Bottle of Lies: The Inside Story of the Generic Drug Industry. HarperCollins, 2019.

Feldman, Robin, and Evan Frondorf, Drug Wars: How Big Pharma Raises Prices and Keeps Generics off the Market. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Gabriel, Joseph. Medical Monopoly: Intellectual Property Rights and the Origins of the Modern Pharmaceutical Industry (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2014)

Goldacre, Ben. Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients. rev. ed. New York City: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2014.

Greene, Jeremy A. Generic: The Unbranding of Modern Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014.

Greene, Jeremy A., Flurin Condrau, and Elizabeth Siegel Watkins. Therapeutic Revolutions: Pharmaceuticals and Social Change in the Twentieth Century. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Hara, Takiyi. Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: The Process of Drug Discovery and Development. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003. [case studies from Japan and UK].

Kinch, Michael S. A Prescription for Change: The Looming Crisis in Drug Development. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016.

Li, Jie Jack. Blockbuster Drugs: The Rise and Decline of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Mikami, Koichi. Orphans in the Market: The History of Orphan Drug Policy. Social History of Medicine 32.3 (2019): 609-30.

Mintzes, Barbara and Joel Lexchin. Do Higher Drug Costs Lead to Better Health?’ Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12.1 (2005): e22-27.

Quirke, Viviane. Collaboration in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Changing Relationships in Britain and France, 1935-1965. London: Routledge, 2006.

Stephens, Myles D. B. The Dawn of Drug Safety: The Discovery, Reporting and Management of Adverse Drug Reactions Prior to and including the Thalidomide Disaster. Easton, Winchester, Hampshire: George Mann, 2010.

Timmermann, Carsten. How to produce 'marketable and profitable results for the company': from viral interference to Roferon A. History & Philosophy of the Life Sciences. 41.3 (2019): 30.

Werth, Barry. The Antidote: Inside the World of New Pharma. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014.


Experiments, Clinical Trials and Evidence-Based Medicine / Expériences, essais cliniques et evidence-based médecine

Abastado, Philippe. Impasse du savoir: Essai d’épistémologie médicale. Sèvres: EDK, 2007 [sur essais cliniques].

Agoritsas, Thomas, Ignacio Neumann, Carolina Mendoza, and Gordon H. Guyatt. Guideline conflict of interest management and methodology heavily impacts on the strength of recommendations. J Clinical Epidemiology 81 (2017): 142-3.

Bhatt, Arun. Evolution of clinical research: A history before and beyond James Lind. Perspect Clin Res. 1.1 (2010): 6-10.

Collier, Roger. Legumes, lemons and streptomycin: A short history of the clinical trial. . 

Edwards, Martin. Control and the Therapeutic Trial: Rhetoric and Experimentation in Britain, 1918-48. Clio Medica vol 85. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007.

Freedman, D. From association to causation: Some remarks on the history of statistics. Statistical Science 14.3 (1999): 243-58.

Gehan, Edmund A., and Noreen A. Lemak. Statistics in Medical Research: Developments in Clinical Trials. New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1994.

Goodman, Jordan, Anthony McElligott, and Lara Marks, eds. Making Human Bodies Useful: Historicizing Medical Experiments in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.

, , ,, , , , I. , , The vexing problem of guidelines and conflict of interest: a potential solution. 152.11 (2010):738-41.

Hanemaayer, Ariane. The Impossible Clinic: A Critical Sociology of Evidence-Based Medicine. Vancouver UBC Press, 2019.

Jadad, Alejandro R. and Murray W. Enkin. Randomized Controlled Trials: Questions, Answers, and Musings. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.

Keating, Peter and Alberto Cambrosio. Cancer on Trial: Oncology as a New Style of Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Keel, Othmar. La médecine des preuves: Une histoire de l’expérimentation thérapeutique par essais cliniques contrôlés. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Motréal, 2011.

Lederer, Susan E. Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America before the Second World War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

Lilienfeld, Abraham. Ceteris Paribus: The Evolution of the Clinical Trial. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 56 (1982): 1–18.

Maehle, Andreas-Holger. Drugs on Trial: Experimental Pharmacology and Therapeutic Innovation in the Eighteenth Century. Clio medica, vol. 53. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999.

Marks, Harry M. The Progress of Experiment: Science and Therapeutic Reform in the United States, 1900-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Meldrum, Marcia L. A Brief History of the Randomized Controlled Trial. From Oranges and Lemons to the Gold Standard. Hematology & Oncology Clinics of North America 14 (2000): 745-60, vii.

Rangachari, P. K. Evidence-Based Medicine. Old French Wine with a New Canadian Label. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90 (1997): 280-4.

Resnik, David B. The Use of Human Subjects in Research. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Roelcke, Volker, and Giovanni Maio, eds. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research: Historical Perspectives on Values, Practices, and Regulations. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004.

Steichen, Olivier. Médecine d'observation à la médecine factuelle: histoire critique de l'évidence-based medicine. Paris: Hermann, 2018.

Women's Health Initiative Investigators, Writing Group. Principal Results from the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 288.3 (2002): 321-333. doi:10.1001/jama.288.3.321


Specific Drug Histories / Quelques médicaments

Alter, H.J. The Gordon Wilson Lecture: The Hepatitis C virus: from Hippocrates to cure. Transactions of the American Clinical & Climatological Association. 130 (2019): 104-18.

Barber, Patrick W. Psychedelic Revolutionaries: LSD and the Birth of Hallucinogenic Research. Regina, Saskatchewan: University of Regina Press, 2018

Bergmann, Karl-Christian and Johannes Ring, eds. History of Allergy. Basel: Karger, 2014

Brown, Walter A. Lithium: a Doctor, a Drug, and a Breakthrough. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation, 2019.

Chaudhuri, S., J.A. Symons, and J. Deval Innovation and trends in the development and approval of antiviral medicines: 1987-2017 and beyond. Antiviral Research. 155 (2018): 76-88.

Crawford, Matthew James. The Andean Wonder Drug: Cinchona Bark and Imperial Science in the Spanish Atlantic, 1630-1800. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016

Creager, Angela N.H. Life Atomic: a History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press, 2013

Duffin, Jacalyn. Poisoning the Spindle: Serendipity and Discovery of the Anti-Tumour Properties of the Vinca Alkaloids,” Pharmacy in History 44 (2002): 64-76 and 93-128.

Duffin, Jacalyn. Stanley’s Dream: The Medical Expedition to Easter Island. [on rapamycin] Montreal; Kingston; London; Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2019.

Eichmann, Klaus. Köhler’s Invention [monoclonal antibiodies]. Basel; Boston: Birkhäuser, 2005.

Fernandez, Humberto, and Therissa A. Libby. Heroin: its History, Pharmacology, and Treatment, 2nd ed. Center City, Minn.: Hazelden, 2011.

Green, William C. Contraceptive Risk: The FDA, Depo-Provera, and the Politics of Experimental Medicine. New York: New York University Press, 2017.

Hu, Zhiqiang, Wenhu Zhang, Yiran Shao, Dan Li, Manyuan Wang. Tu Youyou’s Journey in the Search for Artemisinin, trans. Junxian Yu. New Jersey: World Scientific, 2018.

Keating, Peter, and Alberto Cambrosio. Exquisite Specificity: The Monoclonal Antibody Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Kwong, Ann D., Robert S. Kauffman, Patricia Hurter, and Peter Mueller. Discovery and development of telaprevir: an NS3-4A protease inhibitor for treating genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus. Nature Biotechnology 29.11 (2011):993-1003.

Lachenal, Guillaume. The Lomidine Files: The Untold Story of a Medical Disaster in Colonial Africa, trans. Noemi Tousignant. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017.

Lee, Martin A. Smoke Signals: a Social History of Marijuana: Medical, Recreational, and Scientific. New York: Scribner, 2013.

Marks, Lara V. The Lock and Key of Medicine: Monoclonal Antibodies and the Transformation of Healthcare. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015.

Maximov, Philipp Y., Russell E. McDaniel, and V. Craig Jordan. Tamoxifen: Pioneering Medicine in Breast Cancer. Basel: Springer, 2013.

Myakishev-Rempel, Max, Istvan Stadler, Philip Brondon, David R. Axe, Mark Friedman, Frances Barg Nardia, and Raymond Lanzafame. A preliminary study of the safety of red-light phototherapy of tissues harboring cancer. Photomed Laser Surg. 30.9 (2012): 551–558.

Parsons, Nicholas L. Meth Mania: a History of Methamphetamine. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2014.

Pieters, Toine. Interferon: The Science and Selling of a Miracle Drug. London; New York: Routledge, 2005.

Rees, Anthony R. The Antibody Molecule: from Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Roberts, Sam. Oleh Hornykiewicz who discovered Parkinson treatment dies at 93, New York Times, 12 June 2020.

Stolberg, Victor B. ADHD Medications: History, Science, and Issues. Santa Barbara: Greenwood, 2017.

Swiderski, Richard M. Quicksilver: a History of the Use, Lore, and Effects of Mercury. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2008.

Zivin, Justin A. and John Galbraith Simmons. tPA for Stroke: The Story of a Controversial Drug. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.


Britain / Iles Britanniques

Anderson, Stuart, ed. Making Medicines: A Brief History of Pharmacy and Pharmaceuticals. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2005.

Curth, Louise Hill, ed. From Physick to Pharmacology. Five Hundred Years of British Drug Retailing. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006.

Dingwall, Helen M. Physicians, Surgeons and Apothecaries: Medicine in Seventeenth-Century Edinburgh. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell Press, 1995.

Harper, Peter S. The Evolution of Medical Genetics: a British Perspective. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2020.

Holloway, S. W. F. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1841-1991: A Political and Social History. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2005.


Websites on UK.

The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (ABPI) offers a number of fact sheets and annual reports.

The government agency, Prescription Medicine Code of Practice Authority, makes its annual reports available since 1998.

Wellcome Witness seminars -- first person accounts of many achievements in clinical pharmacology and on specific drugs and diseases




Arnason, Thor, Richard J. Hebda, and Timothy Johns. Use of Plants for Food and Medicine by Native Peoples of Eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Bot­any 59 (1981): 2189–325.

Bliss, Michael. The Discovery of Insulin. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982.

Cadotte, Marcel. A propos de la description par Jacques Cartier d’une ‘grosse maladie’ survenue au cours de son deuxième voyage au Canada. Union médi­cale du Canada 113 (1984): 651–5.

Carstairs, Catherine. Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power in Canada, 1920-1961 Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006.

Clow, Barbara. Defining Disability, Limiting Liability: The Care of Thalidomide Victims in Canada. In Essays in Honour of Michael Bliss: Figuring the Social, eds. E. Heaman, et al., 304-14. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

Collin, Johanne. Nouvelle ordonnance. Quatre siècles d’histoire de la pharmacie au Québec. Montréal : Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2020

Collin, Johanne, and Denis Beliveau. Histoire de la pharmacie au Québec. Montréal: Musée de la Pharmacie du Québec, 1994.

Connor, J.T.H. ‘A Sort of Felo de Se’: Eclecticism, Related Medical Sects and Their Decline in Victorian Ontario. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65 (1991): 503–27.

Crellin, J.K. Home Medicine: The Newfoundland Experience. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994. 

Duffin, Jacalyn. The Yew Tree and the Crab: A Case Study of Big Pharma, Small Pharma, and an Anti-Cancer Drug. Pharmacy in History 62 (2020): 3-18.

Durzan, Don J. Arginine, Scurvy and Cartier's ‘Tree of Life.’ J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 5 (2009): 5.

Kohler, Jillian Clare, Joel Lexchin, Victoria Kuek, James Orbinski. Le Régime canadien d'accès aux médicaments: promesse ou échec d'un geste humanitaire? Healthcare Policy.  5.3 (2010): 40–48.

Lexchin, Joel. The Real Pushers: A Critical Analysis of the Canadian Drug Industry. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1984.

Li, Alison. Wondrous Transformations: Endocrinology after Insulin. In Essays in Honour of Michael Bliss: Figuring the Social, eds. E. Heaman, et al., 351-77. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008.

Li, Alison. J.B. Collip and the Development of Medical Research in Canada: Extracts and Enterprise. Montreal McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.

Macbeth, Robert A. Louis Hébert: le père de la Nouvelle France. Annals of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 30 (1997): 37–41.

Malleck, Dan. When Good Drugs Go Bad: Opium, Medicine, and the Origins of Canada’s Drug Laws. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2015.

Maranda, Jeanne. On m’dévisage. 25 ans de lutte contre le publisexisme. by the author, 2018.

Marks, G.S. The History of Pharmacology in Canada. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 15 (1994): 205–10, erratum 349.

Montigny, Edgar-André. The Real Dope: Social, Legal, and Historical Perspectives on the Regulation of Drugs in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.

Persaud, Navine, et Haroon Ahmad. Liste canadienne des médicaments essentielles: Potential et incertitudes. Médecine de famille canadien 63 (2017): e204-6.

Report of the Thalidomide Task Force. 3 vols. Ottawa: War Amputations of Canada, 1989.

Richert, Lucas. Strange Trips: Science, Culture, and the Regulation of Drugs. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2018.

Rubio, Jen, ed.The Canadian Receipt Book: Containing over 500 Valuable Receipts for the Farmer and the Housewife. Oakville, Ontario: Rock's Mills Press, 2018.

Thompson, Jon, Patricia Baird, and Jocelyn Downie. The Olivieri Report: The Complete Text of the Report of the Independent Inquiry Commissioned by the Canadian Association of University Teachers. Toronto: Lorimer, 2001.

Weber, Ashley, and Lisa Mills. A one-time-only combination: Emergency medicine exports under Canada’s access to medicines regime. Health and Human Rights 12.1 (June 2010).

Websites / Sites Web re Canada

Canada’s Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies provide some facts from the industry perspective.

The Patent Medicine Review Board offers annual reports from containing information about pharmaceuticals and finances from a government perspective.

The Canadian Association of University Teachers offers a number of documents relevant to academic freedom case of Nancy Olivieri.

Health Canada. Drug Products Database,

Drug shortages, government site

Drug shortages, my site



Abastado, Philippe. Impasse du savoir: Essai d’épistémologie médicale. Sèvres: EDK, 2007.

Berche, Patrick, et Jean-Jacques Lefrère, Gloires et impostures de la médecine Paris: Perrin, 2011 (surtout thalidomide, pp. 329-48).

Bonah, Christian, et Jean-Paul Gaudillière. Faute, accident ou risque iatrogène ? La régulation des événements indésirables du médicament à l'aune des affaires Stalinon et Distilbène. Revue française des affaires sociales issue 3-4 (2007): 123-15.

Droixhe, Daniel. Les charlatans du cancer: offre thérapeutique et presse médicale dans la France des Lumières. Paris: Hermann, 2018.

Faure, Olivier. Les Français et leur médecine au XIXe siècle. Paris: Bélin, 1993.

Faure, Olivier. Aux marges de la médecine; santé et souci de soi, France (XIXe siècle), ed. Anne Carol. Aix-en-Provence: Presses universitaires de Provence, 2015.

Lellinger, Solène. Innovation thérapeutique et accidents médicamenteux. Socio-genèse du scandale du benfluorex et conditions de reconnaissance d’une pathologie émergente: les valvulopathies médicamenteuses. Dissertation du doctorat, Strasbourg, 2018.

Simon, Jonathan. Diphtheria Serum as a Technological Object: A Philosophical Analysis of Serotherapy in France 1894-1900. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2017.



United States /Etats Unis

Brandt, Allan M. No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Breslaw, Elaine G., Lotions, Potions, Pills, and Magic: Health Care in Early America. New York: New York University Press, 2012.

Carpenter, Daniel P., Reputation and Power: Organizational Image and Pharmaceutical Regulation at the FDA. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Estes, J. Worth. Hall Jackson and the Purple Foxglove: Medical Practice and Research in Revolutionary America, 1760–1820. Hanover, N.H.: University of New England Press, 1979.

Fernandez Lynch, Holly, and I. Glenn Cohen, eds. FDA in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenges of Regulating Drugs and New Technologies. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.

Flannery, Michael A. Civil War Pharmacy: a History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2017.

Fox, Daniel M. The Convergence of Science and Governance: Research, Health Policy, and American States. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010.

Greene, Jeremy A. Prescribing by Numbers: Drugs and the Definition of Disease. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

Griffenhagen, George B., William Ellis, Samuel Kalman, Michael A. Schwartz. History of the APhA Foundation: Celebrating the 50th Anniversary. Washington, D.C.: American Pharmaceutical Association Foundation, 2003.

Haller, John S. American Medicine in Transition, 1840–1910. Urbana and London: University of Illinois Press, 1981.

Haller, John S. The History of American Homeopathy: The Academic Years, 1820-1935. New York: Pharmaceutical Products, 2005.

Haller, John S. The People's Doctors: Samuel Thomson and the American Botanical Movement, 1790-1860. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U. Pr., 2000.

Hilts, Philip J. Protecting America's Health: The FDA, Business, and One Hundred Years of Regulation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003.

Johnson, Nick M. Grass Roots: a History of Cannabis in the American West. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2017.

Kahn, Richard J. Diseases in the District of Maine 1772 to 1820: The Unpublished Work of Jeremiah Barker, a Rural Physician in New England. New York: Oxford University Press, 2020.

Parascandola, John. Sources in the History of American Pharmacology. Madison, Wis.: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, 1983.

Parascandola, John. The Development of American Pharmacology: John J. Abel and the Shaping of a Discipline. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Pinkus, Rosa L. From Lydia Pinkham to Bob Dole: What the Changing Face of Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising Reveals About the Professionalism of Medicine. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (2002): 141-58.

Podolsky, Scott H. and Jeremy A. Greene. A Historical Perspective of Pharmaceutical Promotion and Physician Education. JAMA 300 (2008): 831-3.

Podolsky, Scott H. Pneumonia before Antibiotics: Therapeutic Evolution and Evaluation in Twentieth-Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Podolsky, Scott H. Pneumonia before Antibiotics: Therapeutic Evolution and Evaluation in Twentieth-Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006.

Richert, Lucas. Conservatism, Consumer Choice, and the Food and Drug Administration during the Reagan Era: a Prescription for Scandal. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2014.

Richert, Lucas. Strange Trips: Science, Culture, and the Regulation of Drugs. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2018.

Rosenberg, Charles E., and Morris J. Vogel, eds. The Therapeutic Revolution: Essays in the Social History of American Medicine. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylva­nia Press, 1979.

Smith, Susan L. Toxic Exposures: Mustard Gas and the Health Consequences of World War II in the United States. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2017.

Tobbell, Dominique A. Pills, Power, and Policy: The Struggle for Drug Reform in Cold War America and its Consequences. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press; New York: Milbank Memorial Fund, 2012.

Tone, Andrea, and Elizabeth Siegel Watkins. Medicating Modern America: Prescription Drugs in History. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

Warner, John Harley. Against the Spirit of System; the French Impulse in Nineteenth-Century American Medicine. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Warner, John Harley. The Therapeutic Perspective: Medical Practice, Knowledge, and Identity in America, 1820–1885. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Wharton, James C. Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: Oxford, 2004.

Websites /Sites Web re USA

The American Institute for the History of Pharmacy, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, has a wealth of relevant information in its collections and at it its website

The Pharmaceutical Researchers and Manufacturers of America offers industry hype and little else.

Science History Institute in Philadelphia

            and its publication Distillations.