On Becoming and Being a Doctor: Education, Licensing, and Payment

Devenir et être médecin: éducation, permis d’exercer et rémunération


Topics in this page / Sujets ici

General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Antiquity aux Lumières / Antiquité aux Lumières

Britain / Iles Britanniques



United States / Etats Unis



General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Bivins, Roberta. Alternative Medicine? A History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Boudreau, J. Donald, Eric J. Cassell, Abraham Fuks. Physicianship and the Rebirth of Medical Education. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Broman, Thomas H. The Transformation of German Academic Medicine, 1750-1820. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996).

Burns, Chester, ed. Legacies in Law and Medicine. New York; Science History Publications, 1971.

Deer, Brian. The Doctor Who Fooled the World: Andrew Wakefield's War on Vaccines. Brunswick, Victoria: Scribe Publications, 2020.

Freidson, Eliot. Profession of Medicine: A Study of the Sociology of Applied Knowledge. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.

Gray, Alastair M. Public Virtues and Private Vices?: Some Recent Literature on Health Care Systems. Social History of Medicine, 3 (1990):  453-60.

Kawakita, Yoshio, Shizu Sakai, and Yasuo Otsuka, eds. History of the Doctor-Patient Relationship. 14th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine – East and West, Japan, 1989. Tokyo: Ishiyaku EuroAmerica, 1995.

Macklin, Ruth. The Doctor-Patient Relationship in Different Cultures. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Nolte, Ellen and Martin McKee. Measuring the Health of Nations: Analysis of Mortality Amenable to Health Care. BMJ 327 (2003):  1129.

O'Malley, C. D. The History of Medical Education: an International Symposium. Berkeley: U California Press, 1970.

Porter, Roy, ed. Patients and Practitioners: Lay Perceptions of Medicine in Pre-Industrial Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Russo, Giuliano, Lihui Xu, Michelle McIsaac, Marcelle Diane Matsika-Claquin, Ibadat Dhillon, Barbara McPake and James Campbell. Health workers’ strikes in low-income countries: the available evidence. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 97 (2019): 460-67.

Shorter, Edward. Bedside Manners: The Troubled History of Doctors and Patients. Har­mondsworth, England: Viking Penguin, 1986.

Solomon, Susan Gross, and John F. Hutchinson, eds. Health and Society in Revolutionary Russia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Weisz, George. Divide and Conquer: A Comparative History of Medical Specialization. New York; Oxford University Press, 2003.

Zelenka, M. H. The Educational Philosophy of Abraham Flexner: Creating Cogency in Medical Education. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008.



OECD Health Data--searchable Data on numerous health indicators allowing comparison between world’s wealthiest nations.



On Antiquity to the Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières

Emerson, Roger L. Essays on David Hume, Medical Men and the Scottish Enlightenment: Industry, Knowledge and Humanity. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, [2009], ©2009.

Jackson, Stanley W., ed. The Hippocratic Oath. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 51 (1996):  special issue, 403–500.

McVaugh, Michael R. Medicine before the Plague: Practitioners and Their Patients in the Crown of Aragon, 1285–1345. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

McVaugh, Michael R. Bedside Manners in the Middle Ages. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71 (1997): 201-23.

Schleiner, Winfried Medical Ethics in the Renaissance. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1995.


Britain / Iles Britanniques

Berkowitz, Carin. Charles Bell and the Anatomy of Reform, University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Bonner, Thomas Neville. Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Collins, Martin. The British School of Osteopathy: the first 100 years. Xlibris Publishing, 2016.

Cook, Harold J. The Decline of the Old Medical Regime in Stuart London. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Cook, Harold J. The Trials of an Ordinary Doctor: Joannes Groenvelt in Seventeenth-Century London. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Digby, Anne. Making a Medical Living: Doctors and Patients in the English Market for Medicine, 1720–1911. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Doyle, Barry M. The Politics of Hospital Provision in Early Twentieth-century Britain. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2014.

Forsyth, Gordon. Doctors and State Medicine: A Study of the British Health Service. Philadelphia and Toronto: Lippincott, 1966.

Gorsky, Martin, and Sally Sheard. Financing Medicine: The British Experience since 1750. London; New York: Routledge, 2006.

Gorsky, Martin. The British National Health Service 1948–2008: A Review of the Historiography. Social History of Medicine, 21 (2008):  437-60.

Gosling, George Campbell. Payment and Philanthropy in British Healthcare, 1918-48. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017.

Ham, Christopher. Health Policy in Britain: The Politics and Organization of the National Health Service, 3rd ed. London: Macmillan, 1992.

Heaman, E. A. St. Mary’s: The History of a London Teaching Hospital. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003.

Hodgkinson, Ruth G. The Origins of the National Health Service: The Medical Services of the New Poor Law, 1834–1871. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.

Jones, Helen. Health and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain. London and New York: Longman, 1994.

Lawrence, Susan C. Charitable Knowledge: Hospital Pupils and Practitioners in Eighteenth-Century London. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Nutton, Vivian and Roy Porter, The History of Medical Education in Britain: Clio Medica, Volume: 30, Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1995.

Reynolds, L.A., and E.M. Tansey, eds. British Contributions to Medical Research and Education in Africa after the Second World War. Witness Seminar. London: Wellcome Trust, 2001.

Rosner, Lisa. Medical Education in the Age of Improvement: Edinburgh Students and Apprentices, 1760-1826. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.

Stringer, M.D., and O. Ahmadi. Famous discoveries by medical students. ANZ Journal of Surgery. 79.12 (2009): 901-8.

Waddington, Keir. Medical Education at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1123-1995. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2003.

The BBC offers a web archive of sound and film concerning the birth of the NHS at.



Badgley, Robin F., and Samuel Wolfe. Doctors’ Strike: Medical Care and Conflict in Saskatchewan. Toronto: Macmillan, 1967.

Connor, J.T.H. "A Sort of 'Felo-De-Se'": Eclecticism, Related Medical Sects, and Their Decline in Victorian Ontario. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65 (1991):  503-27.

Crellin, J.K., R.R. Andersen, and J.T.H. Connor, eds. Alternative Health Care in Canada: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Perspectives. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, 1997.

Dinsdale, Henry B., and Gilles Hurteau, eds. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada: The Evolution of Specialty Medicine, 1979-2004. Ottawa: RCPSC, 2004.

Duffin, Jacalyn. What Goes Around, Comes Around: a History of Medical Tuition. Canadian Medical Association Journal 164 (2001):  50-56.

Duffin, Jacalyn. CSHM/SCHM Presidential Address: The Quota: 'An Equally Serious Problem' for Us All. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 19 (2002):  1-24.

Duffin, Jacalyn. Chief Complaint: Physician Discontent with Canadian Medicare in Esyllt Jones and James Hanley, eds. Medicare’s First Fifty Years: Critical Historical Perspectives on Canada's Public Health Care System. U Manitoba Press, 2020.

Duffin, Jacalyn. Did Abraham Flexner spark the founding of CMAJ? CMAJ 183.6 (2011): 811-13.

Duffin, Jacalyn, Doctors as stewards of Medicare, or not: CAMSI, MRG, CDM, DRHC, and the thin alphabet soup of physician support. Health Economics, Policy and Law 13.3-4 (2018): 450-74.

Duffin, Jacalyn, and Leslie A. Falk. Sigerist in Saskatchewan: The Quest for Balance in Social and Technical Medicine. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 70 (1996):  658–83.

Fedunkiw, Marianne P. Rockefeller Foundation Funding and Medical Education in Toronto, Montreal and Halifax. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.

Gelfand, Toby. Medicine in New France. In Medicine in the New World: New Spain, New France, and New England, ed. Ronald L. Numbers, 64–100. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1987.

Gidney, Robert D., and W.P.J. Millar. Professional Gentlemen: The Professions in Nineteenth-Century Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Godfrey, Charles M. Medicine for Ontario: A History. Belleville, Ont.: Mika, 1979.

Hamowy, Ronald. Canadian Medicine: A Study in Restricted Entry. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1984.

Jecker, N.S., and E.M. Meslin. United States and Canadian Approaches to Justice in Health Care: A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Systems and Values. Theoretical Medicine 15 (1994):  181–200.

Jones, Esyllt. Radical Medicine: The International Origins of Socialized Health Care in Canada Winnipeg: ARP Books, 2019.

Jones, Esyllt, James Hanley, Delia Gavrus, eds. Medicare’s First Fifty Years: Critical Historical Perspectives on Canada's Public Health Care System. U Manitoba Press, 2020.

Kang, Helen. Medicine and Morality: Crises in the History of a Profession, Vancouver: UBC Press, 2019 [on Saskatchewan strike].

Lewis, David Sclater. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 1920– 1969. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1962.

Marchildon, Gregory P., Sara Allin, Sherry Merkur. Health Systems in Transition: Canada Health System Review, 3rd ed. World Health Organization and University of Toronto Press, 2021.

Martin, Danielle Better Now: Six Big Ideas to Improve Health Care. Allen Lane, 2017.

McPhedran, N. Tait. Canadian Medical Schools: Two Centuries of Medical History, 1822–1992. Montreal: Harvest House, 1993.

Meslin, Eric. The Moral Costs of the Ontario Physicians’ Strike. Hastings Center Report 17 (August 1987):  11–14.

Naylor, C. David, ed. Canadian Health Care and the State: A Century of Evolution. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1992.

Naylor, C. David. Private Practice, Public Payment: Canadian Medicine and the Politics of Health Insurance. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1986.

Neufeld, Victor R., et al. Demand-side Medical Education: Educating Future Physicians for Ontario. Canadian Medical Association Journal 148 (1993):  1471–7.

Noren, K. and A. Ribeiro. Incorporating Complementary and Alternative Medicine into Canadian Undergraduate Medical Education. UBCMJ. 2015: 7.1 (4-6).

Shephard, David A.E. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 1960– 1980: The Pursuit of Unity. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 1985.

Shortt, S.E.D. Physicians, Science, and Status: Issues in the Professionalization of Anglo-American Medicine in the Nineteenth Century. Medical History 27 (1983):  51–68.

Taylor, Malcolm G. Health Insurance and Canadian Public Policy: The Seven Decisions that Created Canada’s Health Insurance System and their Outcomes. 2nd edn. Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987.

Weisz, George. The Geographical Origins and Destinations of Medical Graduates in Quebec, 1834-1939. Histoire sociale- Social History 19.37 (1986): 93-119.



OECD Statistics

Dr. Danielle Martin before a US Senate committee defending Canadian Health Care. Video uploaded to youtube by Senator Bernie Sanders,



Bras, Pierre-Louis, et Didier Tabuteau, Les assurances maladie, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2021.

Berche, Patrick, et Jean-Jacques Lefrère. Quand la médecine gagne. Paris: Flammarion, 2012.

Bonner, Thomas Neville. Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Brockliss, L.W. Before the clinic: French medical teaching in the eighteenth century. Clio Medica 50 (1998):71-115.

Damon, Julien. La sécurité sociale. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 2020.

Dubois, C. L'activite du service de R.T.H. Laennec a l'hopital Necker, puis a l'hopital de La Charite, entre 1821 et 1826. Histoire des Sciences Médicales 40.4 (2006): 351-60.

Gourevitch, Danielle. Le banquet de l'internat des hôpitaux de Paris en 1855. Histoire des Sciences Médicales 49.3-4 (2015): 393-409.

Harvey, Joy. Faithful to its old traditions? Paris clinical medicine from the second empire to the Third Republic (1848-1872). Clio Medica 50 (1998): 313-35.

Hoerni, B., et P. Henr. Les internes dans les hôpitaux de Bordeaux, il y a un demi-siècle. Revue de la Société française d'histoire des hôpitaux 153 (2015): 58-64.

Legaye, J. L'enseignement de la medecine sous le Révolution et l'Empire. Histoire des Sciences Médicales 48.3 (2014): 397-404.

Lellouch, Alain. Jean-Charles Sournia et l'histoire de la santé publique, Histoire des sciences médicales 36.2 (2002): 227-35.

Liste des écoles d’ostéopathie en France

Magniadas, Jean. Histoire de la Sécurité sociale, Conférence présentée le 9 octobre 2003 à l’Institut CGT d’histoire sociale [lire en ligne [archive]].

Manuel, Diana E. ed., Walking the Paris Hospitals: Diary of an Edinburgh Medical Student, 1834–1835. Medical History, Supplement No. 23, 2004.

Nahum, Henri. La médecine française et les Juifs (1930-1945). Paris: L’Harmattan, 2006.

Palluault, Florent. Medical students in England and France 1815-1858: a comparative study. PhD Thesis, Oxford University, 2003, online.

Pinell, Patrice. The Genesis of the Medical Field: France, 1795-1870. Revue française de sociologie 52 (2011): 117-51.

Poirier, Jacques, et Christian Derouesné. L'éducation médicale en France: de la Révolution à nos jours. Paris: Hermann, 2017.

Pouillard, Jean. L'Ordre des Médecins, sa genèse, ses dispositions déontologiques Paris: Glyphe, 2011.

Rieder, Philip. Anatomie d'une institution médicale: la Faculté de médecine de Genève (1876-1920). Lausanne: Éditions BHMS, 2009.

Smith, Timothy B. France in Crisis: Welfare, Inequality, and Globalization since 1980. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Vautravers P. Médecine manuelle - ostéopathie en France. Annals of Physical & Rehabilitation Medicine 53.5 (2010):291-92.

Vichard, P. La centralisation universitaire napoléonienne en médecine. Histoire et conséquences. Histoire des Sciences Médicales 39.4 (2005): 333-48.


United States / Etats Unis

Baker, Robert B., et al., eds. The American Medical Ethics Revolution: How the AMA's Code of Ethics Has Transformed Physicians' Relationships to Patients, Professionals, and Society. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Barzansky, Barbara M., and Norman Gevitz, eds. Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century. New York: Greenwood Press, 1992.

Belkin, G S. The technocratic wish: making sense and finding power in the "managed" medical marketplace. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law 22 (1997):  509-32.

Berlant, Jeffrey L. Profession and Monopoly: A Study of Medicine in the United States and Britain. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975.

Bonner, Thomas Neville. Becoming a Physician: Medical Education in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, 1750-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Coombs, Jan Gregoire. The Rise and Fall of HMOs: An American Health Care Revolution. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin, Press, 2005.

Coulter, Harris L. Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in Medical Thought. 3 vols. 1975–82. Esp. vol. 3, The Conflict between Homeopathy and the American Medical Association. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books, 1982.

De Ville, Kenneth A. God, Science, and History: The Cultural Origins of Medical Error. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004.

De Ville, Kenneth A. Medical Malpractice in Nineteenth-Century America: Origins and Legacy. New York: New York University Press, 1990.

Gevitz, Norman, ed. Other Healers: Unorthodox Medicine in America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988.

Gevitz, Norman, The DOs: Osteopathic Medicine in America. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Halperin, Edward C. The Jewish Problem in U.S. Medical Education, 1920-1955.’Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 56 (2001):  140-67.

Jones, James H. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. rev.ed. New York: Free Press, 1993.

Kett, Joseph F. The Formation of the American Medical Profession: The Role of Institutions, 1780–1860. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1968.

Ludmerer, K. M. Learning to Heal: the Development of American Medical Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Ludmerer, Kenneth M. Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Ludmerer, Kenneth M. Let Me Heal: The Opportunity to Preserve Excellence in American Medicine. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Martin, Stephen C. “The Only Truly Scientific Method of Healing”: Chiropractic and American Science, 1895–1990. Isis 85 (1994):  206–27.

McCullough, Laurence B. Power, Integrity, and Trust in the Managed Practice of Medicine: Lessons from the History of Medical Ethics. In Bioethics, eds. E. F. Paul et al., 180-211. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Moore, J. Stuart. Chiropractic in America: The History of a Medical Alternative. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Numbers, Ronald L. Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912–1920. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.

Pernick, Martin S. A Calculus of Suffering: Pain, Professionalism, and Anesthesia in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.

Posner, James R. Trends in Medical Malpractice Insurance, 1970-1985. Law and Contemporary Problems 49.2 (1986): 37-56.

Reverby, Susan M. Restorative Justice and Restorative History for the Sexually Transmitted Disease Inoculation Experiments in Guatemala. American Journal of Public Health 106.7 (2016): 1163-4.

Reverby, Susan M. Co-conspirator for Justice: The Revolutionary Life of Dr. Alan Berkman. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press (April 16 2020.

Reverby, Susan M. Compensation and reparations for victims and bystanders of the U.S. Public Health Service research studies in Tuskegee and Guatemala: Who do we owe what? Bioethics. 2020 Jun 30.

Reverby, Susan, ed. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Rogers, Naomi, ‘“Caution: The AMA May Be Dangerous to Your Health": The Student Health Organizations (SHO) and American Medicine, 1965-1970. Radical History Review, 80 (2001):  5-34.

Rosen, George, and Charles E. Rosenberg. The Structure of American Medical Practice, 1875–1941. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Rosenberg, Charles E. Our Present Complaint: American Medicine, Then and Now. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007.

Rosner, Lisa. Thistle on the Delaware: Edinburgh Medical Education and Philadelphia Practice, 1800–1825. Social History of Medicine, 5 (1992):  19-42.

Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine. New York: Basic Books, 1982.

Warner, John Harley. Power, Conflict, and Identity in Mid-Nineteenth-Century American Medicine. Journal of American History 73 (1987):  934–56.

Wheatley, Steven Charles. The Politics of Philanthropy: Abraham Flexner and Medical Education. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

Wolinsky, Howard, and Tom Brune. The Serpent on the Staff: The Unhealthy Politics of the American Medical Association. New York: Putnam, 1994.