Plagues and Peoples: Epidemic Diseases in History

Les fléaux et les populations: les maladies épidémiques dans l’histoire


Topics in this page-- most references are listed only once, so…

remember also to search on keywords: disease name or location

Sujets ici – la plupart des sources ne sont trouvées qu’une seule fois - -donc, chercher sur les mots clés

General / Ouvrages généraux

(including plague, syphilis; y compris la peste et syphilis)

Modern Plagues / Fléaux modernes

(including/y compris cholera, variola, encephalitis lethargica, polio, SARS, Ebola, Zika, vaccines

         influenza / la grippe

tuberculosis / tuberculose

         malaria / paludisme

         AIDS / SIDA

Military causes / les causes militaires

Africa / Afrique

Asia / Asie

Britain / Iles Britanniques


France (ou en français)

United States / Etats Unis

Websites / Sites Web


General Works / Ouvrages généraux

Aberth, John. Plagues in World History. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2011.

Armelagos, G.J., P.J. Brown, and B. Turner. Evolutionary, historical and political economic perspectives on health and disease. Social Science & Medicine 61.4 (2005): 755-765.

Arnold, David. Colonizing the Body: State Medicine and Epidemic Disease in Nineteenth-Century India. Berkeley: California University Press, 1993.

Clément, François. Epidemies, épizooties: des représentations anciennes aux approches actuelles. Rennes: Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2017.

Cohn Jr., Samuel K. Hate and Compassion from the Plague of Athens to AIDS. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Coste, Joël, Bernardino Fantini and Louise L. Lambrichs, eds. Le concept de pathocénose de M.D. Grmek: une conceptualisation novatrice de l'histoire des maladies. Geneva: Droz, 2016.

Downs, Jim. Maladies of Empire. Harvard University Press, 2020.

Gunter, Joel, and Vikas Panday. ‘Waldemar Haffkine: The vaccine pioneer the world forgot.’ BBC News, 1 December 2020.

Greenblatt, Charles L., and Mark Spigelman. Emerging Pathogens: The Archaeology, Ecology, and Evolution of Infectious Disease. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Hammond, Mitchell L. Epidemics in the Modern World. Toronto: U Toronto Press, 2020.

Hardt, Mark D. History of Infectious Disease Pandemics in Urban Societies. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2016.

Hays, J.N. The Burdens of Disease: Epidemics and Human Response in Western History. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2009.

Hirsch, August. Handbook of Geographical and Historical Pathology. 3 vols., trans. Charles Creighton. London: New Sydenham Society, 1883–6.

Jones, Lori, and Richard Nevell. ‘Plagued by doubt and viral misinformation: The need for evidence-based use of historical disease images,’ Lancet Infectious Disease 16.10 (2016): E235-E240.

Keelan, Jennifer, Kenton Kroker, and Pauline M. H. Mazumdar, eds. Crafting Immunity: Working Histories of Clinical Immunology. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.

Kiple, Kenneth D., ed. The Cambridge World History of Human Disease. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Koch, Tom. Disease Maps: Epidemics on the Ground. Chicago; London: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.

Kotar, S.L., and J.E. Gessler. Yellow Fever: A Worldwide History. Jefferson, NC: McFarlane, 2015.

Kucharski, Adam. The Rules of Contagion. Why Things Spread and Why they Stop. New York; Basic, 2020.

Kunitz, Stephen J. Disease and Social Diversity: The European Impact on the Health of Non-Europeans. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Magner, Lois N. A History of Infectious Diseases and the Microbial World. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2009.

McKeown, Thomas. The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage, or Nemesis? Nuffield Trust, 1976; Princeton U Press, 1979, 2014.

McMillen, Christian W. Pandemics: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford U Press, 2016.

McNeill, W. H. Plagues and Peoples. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday, 1976, 1982.

Méthot, Pierre-Olivier and Bernardino Fantini. Medicine and Ecology: Historical and Critical Perspectives on the Concept of 'Emerging Disease' Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences 64 (2014): 172-73, 213-30.

Moalem, Sharon et al. Epidemic pathogenic selection: An explanation for hereditary hemochromatosis? Medical Hypotheses 59.3(2002): 325–329.

Nielsen, May-Brith Ohman. A Historiographical Inquiry into the Theoretical and Methodological Implications of Borders in the Studies of Great Epidemics: Bugs and Borders. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2015.

Peckham, Robert Shannan. Epidemics in Modern Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge U Press, 2016.

Rappuoli R. From Pasteur to Genomics: Progress and Challenges in Infectious Diseases. Nature Medicine 10.11 (2004):1177-85.

Rhodes, John. The End of Plagues: The Global Battle against Infectious Disease. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Rosenberg, Charles E. Explaining Epidemics: And Other Studies in the History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Silverstein, Arthur M. A History of Immunology. Academic Press, 2009.

Snowden, Frank M. Epidemics and Society: from the Black Death to the Present. New Haven, CT: Yale U Press, 2019.

Sontag, Susan. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1977 .

Vialla, François et al., eds. Les pouvoirs publics face aux épidémies: de l'Antiquité au XXIe siècle. Bordeaux: LEH édition, 2021.

Wigand, Moritz E., T. Becker, and F. Steger F. Psychosocial Reactions to Plagues in the Cultural History of Medicine: A Medical Humanities Approach. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 208.6 (2020):443-444.

Wright, Jennifer Ashley. Get Well Soon: History's Worst Plagues and the Heroes who Fought Them. New York: Holt, 2017.


A special issue of the journal, History and Philosophy of Life Sciences (vol. 27 no.1, 2005) addresses the history of disease within the context of the historical concept of ‘longue durée.’


Antiquity to Enlightenment / Antiquité aux Lumières.

(including plague, syphilis; y compris peste et syphilis).

Arrizabalaga, Jon, John Henderson, Roger French. The Great Pox: The French Disease in Renaissance Europe. New Haven; Yale University Press, 1997.

Blažina Tomić, Zlata and Vesna Blažina. Expelling the Plague: The Health Office and the Implementation of Quarantine in Dubrovnik, 1377-1533. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s U Press, 2015.

Bulmuş, Birsen. Plague, Quarantines, and Geopolitics in the Ottoman Empire. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.

Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the Poor in Renaissance Florence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Clark, Linda, and Carole Rawcliffe, eds. Society in an Age of Plague [15th century]. Rochester, NY: Boydell, 2013.

Cohn, Samuel K. The Black Death Transformed: Disease and Culture in Early Renaissance Europe. London; New York: Arnold and Oxford University Press, 2002.

Getz, Faye. ‘The Black Death and the Silver Lining: Meaning, Continuity, and Revolutionary Change in Histories of Medieval Plague.’ Journal of the History of Biology 24 (1991): 265–89.

Green, Monica, ed. Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World: Rethinking the Black Death. Kalamazoo: Arc Medieval Press, 2015.

Green, Monica. When Numbers Don't Count: Changing Perspectives on the Justianic Plague. Eidolon, 18 November 2019.

Herlihy, David. The Black Death and the Transformation of the West, ed. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Jouanna, Jacques. Air, Miasma and Contagion in the Time of Hippocrates and the Survival of Miasmas in Post-Hippocratic Medicine (Rufus of Ephesus, Galen and Palladius). Trans. Neil Allies. In Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen: Selected Papers, ed. Philip van der Eijk. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

Littman, Robert J. ‘The Plague of Athens: Current Analytic Techniques.’ Amphora 5 (2006): 10-12.

Norrie, Philip. A History of Disease in Ancient Times: More Lethal than War. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan Springer Nature, 2016.

Trevisanato, Siro I. ‘The 'Hittite Plague', an Epidemic of Tularemia and the First Record of Biological Warfare.’ Medical Hypotheses 69 (2007): 1371-74.

Varlik, Nukhet, ed. Plague and Contagion in the Islamic Mediterranean: New Histories of Disease in Ottoman society. Newark: Rutgers U Press, 2017.


Modern Plagues / Fléaux modernes

(including smallpox, encephalitis lethargica, polio, SARS, Ebola, Zika and vaccines.

Abraham, Thomas. Twenty-First Century Plague: The Story of SARS. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Crawford, E.B. and Dorothy H. Crawford. Ebola: Profile of a Killer Virus. Oxford: Oxford U Press, 2016.

Crosby, Molly Caldwell. Asleep: The Forgotten Epidemic that Remains One of Medicine's Greatest Mysteries. New York: Berkley Books, 2010.

Diniz, Debora. Zika: from the Brazilian Backlands to Global Threat. trans. Diane Grosklaus Whitty. London: Zed Books, 2017.

Duffin, Jacalyn, and Arthur Sweetman, eds. SARS in Context: Memory, History, Policy. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 2006.

Farley, John. Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Foley, Paul Bernard. Encephalitis lethargica: The Mind and Brain Virus. New York: Springer, 2018.

Hanrahan, S.N. ‘Historical Review of Menstrual Toxic Shock Syndrome.’ Women and Health 21 (1994): 141–65.

Hopkins, Donald R. The Greatest Killer: Smallpox in History. Chicago University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Jones, Susan D., and Philip M. Teigen. ‘Anthrax in Transit; Practical Experience and Intellectual Exchange.’ Isis 99 (2008): 455-85.

Kitta, Andrea. Vaccinations and Public Concern in History: Legend, Rumor, and Risk Perception. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2012.

Mason, Katherine A. Infectious Change: Reinventing Chinese Public Health after an Epidemic [SARS]. Stanford: Stanford U P, 2016.

Mason, Katherine A. Infectious Change: Reinventing Chinese Public Health after an Epidemic [SARS]. Stanford: Stanford U P, 2016.

McNeil, Donald G. Jr. Zika: The Emerging Epidemic. New York: Norton, 2016.

Meima, Abraham, L.M. Irgens, G.J. van Oortmarssen, J.H. Richardus, and J.D.F. Habbema. Disappearance of Leprosy from Norway: An Exploration of Critical Factors Using an Epidemiological Modelling Approach. International Journal of Epidemiology 31.5(2002): 991–1000.

Offit, Paul A. The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Slack, Paul. ‘Responses to plague in early modern Europe: The implications of public health.’ Social Research 55.3 (1988): 433-453.

Slack, Paul. Plague: A very short introduction. Oxford University Press, 2012.

Qureshi, Adnan I., Ebola Virus Disease: from Origin to Outbreak. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic, 2018.

Richard, Paul. Ebola: How a People's Science Helped End an Epidemic. London: Zed Books Ltd, 2016.

Ross, Richard S. Contagion in Prussia, 1831: The Cholera Epidemic and the Threat of the Polish Uprising. Jefferson NC: McFarland, 2015.

Sherwood, Joan. ‘Syphilization: Human Experimentation in the Search for a Syphilis Vaccine in the Nineteenth Century.’ Journal of the History of Medicine & Allied Sciences. 54 (1999): 364-86. (See also Dracolby).

Vilensky, Joel A., ed. Encephalitis Lethargica: During and after the Epidemic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Williams. Gareth. Paralysed with Fear: The Story of Polio. Houndsmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.


Special issue of Bulletin of the History of Medicine 83.1 (2009) on smallpox vaccination around the world.



Ashton, Jean, AIDS in New York: The First Five Years. Based on the exhibition AIDS in New York:, June-September 2013. New-York: New-York Historical Society, 2015.

Grmek, Mirko D. History of AIDS: Emergence and Origin of a Modern Pandemic. Trans. R. C. Maulitz and J. Duffin. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Uni­versity Press, 1990.

Hannaway, Caroline, Victoria A. Harden, and John Parascandola, eds. AIDS and the Public Debate: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 1995.

Loeckx, Renilde. Cold War Triangle: How Scientists in East and West Tamed HIV. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2017.

McKay, Richard A. Patient Zero and the Making of the AIDS Epidemic Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.

Pepin, Jacques. Origins of AIDS. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Rosenberg, Charles E. What Is an Epidemic? AIDS in Historical Perspective. Daedalus, 118.2 (1989): 1-17.


Influenza / La grippe

Arnold, Catharine. Pandemic 1918: Eyewitness Accounts from the Greatest Medical Holocaust in Modern History. New York: St Martin’s Press, 2018.

Barry, John M. The Great Influenza: Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. Penguin, 2009.

Bristow, Nancy K. American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Foley, Caitriona. The Last Irish Plague: The Great Epidemic in Ireland 1918-19. Dublin; Portland, OR: Irish Academic Press, 2011.

Opdycke, Sandra. The Epidemic of 1918: America's Experience in the Global Health Crisis. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Philips, Howard ‘The Re-Appearing Shadow of 1918: Trends in the Historiography of the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic.’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 21 (2004): 121-34.

Rice, Geoffrey W. Black 1918: The Story of New Zealand's Worst Public Health Disaster. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press, 2017.

Spinney, Laura. Pale Rider: The Spanish of 1918 and How It Changed the World London: Johnathan Cape, 2017.


Malaria / paludisme

Majori, Giancarlo. Short History of Malaria and Its Eradication in Italy With Short Notes on the Fight Against the Infection in the Mediterranean Basin. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 4.1 (2012): e2012016.

Webb, James L.A. Jr. Humanity’s Burden: A Global History of Malaria. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Zurbrigg, Sheila. Malaria in Colonial South Asia: Uncoupling Disease and Destitution. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019.


Tuberculosis / Tuberculose

Bynum, Helen. Spitting Blood: The History of Tuberculosis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Condrau, Flurin, and Michael Worboys, eds. Tuberculosis Then and Now: Perspectives on the History of an Infectious Disease. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, [2010],.

Day, Carolyn A. Consumptive Chic: A History of Beauty, Fashion, and Disease. Bloomsbury Publishing, Oct 5, 2017

Feldberg, Georgina. Disease and Class: Tuberculosis and the Shaping of Modern North American Society. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995.


War and Infection: deliberate or accidental.

Avery, Donald H. Pathogens for War: Biological Weapons, Canadian Life Scientists, and North American Biodefence. Toronto: U Toronto Press 2013.

Block, Steven M. The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 89 (2001): 28-37.

Cooter, Roger. ‘Of War and Epidemics: Unnatural Couplings, Problematic Conceptions.’ Social History of Medicine 16 (2003): 283-302.

Guillemin, Jeanne. Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-Sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.

Lederberg, Joshua, ed. Biological Weapons: Limiting the Threat. MIT Press, 1999.


Africa / Afrique

Echenberg, Myron. Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Ngalamulume, Kalala J. Colonial Pathologies, Environment, and Western Medicine in Saint-Louis-du-Senegal, 1867-1920. New York: Peter Lang, 2012.

Phillips, Howard. Epidemics: The Story of South Africa's Five Most Lethal Human Diseases [smallpox, plague, influenza, polio, HIV]. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2012.


Asia / Asie

Mason, Katherine A. Infectious Change: Reinventing Chinese Public Health after an Epidemic [SARS]. Stanford: Stanford U P, 2016.

Polu, Sandhya L. Infectious Disease in India, 1892-1940: Policy-Making and the Perception of Risk. Houndmills, Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Summers, William C. The Great Manchurian Plague of 1910-1911: The Geopolitics of an Epidemic Disease. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012.

Zeheter, Michael. Epidemics, Empire, and Environments: Cholera in Madras and Quebec City, 1818-1910. Pittsburgh, PA: U Pittsburgh Press, 2015.

Zurbrigg, Sheila. Malaria in Colonial South Asia: Uncoupling Disease and Destitution. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019.


Britain / Iles Britanniques

Brabin, Bernard J. An Analysis of the United States and United Kingdom Smallpox Epidemics (1901-5): The Special Relationship that Tested Public Health Strategies for Disease Control. Medical History 64.1 (2020):1-31.

DeLacy, Margaret. The Germ of an Idea: Contagionism, Religion, and Society in Britain, 1660-1730. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Durbach, Nadja. Bodily Matters: The Anti-Vaccination Movement in England, 1853-1907. Durham: Duke University Press, 2005.

Hardy, Anne. ‘Cholera, Quarantine and the English Preventive System, 1850-1895.’ Medical History 37 (1993): 250-69.

Hardy, Anne. ‘Poliomyelitis and the Neurologists: The View from England, 1896-1966.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71 (1997): 249-72.

Hardy, Anne. The Epidemic Streets: Infectious Disease and the Rise of Preventive Medicine, 1856-1900. Oxford; New York: Clarendon, 2003.

Hardy, Anne. ‘"Straight Back to Barbarism": Antityphoid Inoculation and the Great War, 1914.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 74 (2000): 265-90.

Hardy, Anne. ‘Animals, Disease, and Man: Making Connections.’ Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (2003): 200-15.

Langford, C. ‘The Age Pattern of Mortality in the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic: An Attempted Explanation Based on Data for England and Wales.’ Medical History 46 (2002): 1-20.

McCoy, Charles Allan. Diseased States: Epidemic control in Britain and the United States. Amherst, MA: U Massachusetts Press, 2020.

Richardson, Nigel. ‘The Uppingham Typhoid Outbreaks of 1875-1877: A Rural Case-Study in Public Health Reform.’ Social History of Medicine 20 (2007): 281-96.

Smallman-Raynor, Matthew, and Andrew Cliff. Atlas of Epidemic Britain: A Twentieth-Century Picture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Steere-Williams, Jacob. The Filth Disease: Typhoid Fever and the Practices of Epidemiology in Victorian England. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2020.

Tomkins, Sandra M. ‘The Failure of Expertise: Public Health Policy in Britain during the 1918-19 Influenza Epidemic.’ Social History of Medicine 5 (1992): 435-54.

Vinten-Johansen, Peter et al. Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Willis, Elizabeth A. ‘Landscape with Dead Sheep: What They Did to Gruinard Island.’ Medicine, Conflict and Survival 18 (2002): 199-210.

Zuckerman, A. ‘Plague and Contagionism in Eighteenth-Century England: The Role of Richard Mead.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 78 (2004): 273-308.



Atkinson, Logan. ‘The Impact of Cholera on the Design and Implementation of Toronto's First Municipal By-Laws, 1834.’ Urban History Review (March, 2002): 3-15.

Bernier, Jacques. Médecine et idéologies: la tuberculose au Québec, XVIIIe-XXe siècles. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval, 2018.

Bliss, Michael. Plague: A Story of Smallpox in Montreal. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991.

Bramadat, Paul, Maryse Guay, Julie A. Bettinger, and Réal Roy, eds. Public Health in the Age of Anxiety: Religious and Cultural Roots of Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017.

Cassel, Jay. The Secret Plague: Venereal Disease in Canada, 1838–1939. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987 .

Davies, J. W. “A historical note on the Reverend John Clinch, first Canadian vaccinator,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 102 (1970): 957–61.

Decker, Jody. ‘The York Factory Medical Journals, 1846-52,’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, 14 (1997): 105-29.

Dukes Thomas W. ‘"Grosse-Ile": An Overview of the Island's Past Role in Human and Animal Medicine in Canada.’ Canadian Veterinary Journal. 42 (2001): 643-8.

Fahrni, Magdalena and Esyllt W. Jones, eds. Epidemic Encounters: Influenza, Society, and Culture in Canada, 1918-20. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2012.

Goulet, Denis. Brève histoire des épidémies au Québec: Du choléra à la COVID-19. Québec: Éditions du Septentrion, 2020.

Guérard, François. Histoire de la santé au Québec. Montréal: Boréal, 1996.

Heagerty, J. J. Four Centuries of Medicine in Canada, 2 vols. Toronto: Macmillan, 1928.

Jones, Esyllt W. Influenza 1918: Disease, Death and Struggle in Winnipeg. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

Keating, Peter, and Othmar Keel. Santé et société au Québec: XIXe-XXe siècles. Montréal: Boréal, 1995.

Kelm, Mary-Ellen. Colonizing Bodies: Aboriginal Health and Healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1999.

Lessard, Rénald. Au temps de la petite vérole: la médecine au Canada aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Québec: Septentrion, 2012.

Lux, Maureen K. Medicine That Walks: Medicine, Disease, and Canadian Plains Native People, 1880-1940. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

MacDougall, Heather A. ‘Toronto's Health Department in Action: Influenza in 1918 and SARS in 2003.’ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 62 (2007): 56-89.

MacDougall, Heather A. Activists and Advocates: Toronto’s Health Department, 1883–1983. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1990.

MacDougall, Heather, and Laurence Monnais, Vaccinating in the Age of Apathy: measles vaccination in Canada, 1993-1998. Canadian Medical Association Journal 190.13 (2018): E399-E401.

McCallum, Mary Jane Logan. “This Last Frontier: Isolation and Aboriginal Health.” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History Vol 22: 1 (2005): 103-120.

McCallum, Mary Jane Logan. “Starvation, Experimentation, Segregation, and Trauma: Works for Reading Indigenous Health History.” The Canadian Historical Review Vol 91: 1 (March 2017): 96-113.

Marble, Allan E. Surgeons, Smallpox, and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1749-1799. Montreal, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993.

Marble, Allan E. Physicians, Pestilence, and the Poor: A History of Medicine and Social Conditions in Nova Scotia, 1800-1867. Victoria, Trafford Press, 2006.

Marble, Allan E., and Ruth H. Whitehead. Nova Scotia and the Great Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1920: A Remembrance of the Dead and an Archive for the Living. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing, 2020.

Neary, Peter. ‘Venereal Disease and Public Health Administration in Newfound­land in the 1930s and 1940s.’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 15 (1998): 129–51.

Neary, Peter. “A grave problem which needs immediate attention”: An American Report on Venereal Disease and Other Health Problems in Newfoundland, 1942,’ Newfoundland Studies 15 (1999): 79–103.

Roland, C.G. ‘Sunk under the Taxation of Nature: Malaria in Upper Canada.’ In Health, Disease, and Medicine: Essays on Canadian History, ed. Charles G. Roland, 154–70. Toronto: Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine 1984.

Rutty, Christopher J. ‘Middle-Class Plague: Epidemic Polio and the Canadian State, 1936–37.’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 13 (1996): 277–314.

Sigler, Lynne. Culture Collections in Canada: Perspectives and Problems. Canadian J. Plant Pathology 26 (2004): 39–47.

Spaulding, W.B. ‘The Ontario Vaccine Farm, 1885–1916.’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 6 (1989): 179–83.

Tyshenko, Michael G. and Cathy Paterson. SARS unmasked: risk communication of pandemics and influenza in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.

Van Rijn, K. ‘“Lo! The Poor Indian!’ Colonial Responses to the 1862-63 Smallpox Epidemic in British Columbia and Vancouver Island.’ Canadian Bulletin of Medical History 23 (2006): 541-60.

Zeheter, Michael. Epidemics, Empire, and Environments: Cholera in Madras and Quebec City, 1818-1910. Pittsburgh, PA: U Pittsburgh Press, 2015.



Barry, John M. La grande grippe: comment la grippe espagnole est devenue la pandémie la plus meurtrière de l'histoire, trad. Robert Richard. Paris: Alisio, 2020.

Biraben, Jean-Noël. Les hommes face à la peste. Paris: Mouton, 1976.

Dracobly, Alex. Ethics and Experimentation on Human Subjects in Mid-Nineteenth-Century France: The Story of the 1859 Syphilis Experiments. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 77.2 (2003): 332-66. (see also Sherwood).

Dracobly, Alex. ‘Ethics and Experimentation on Human Subjects in Mid-Nineteenth-Century France: The Story of the 1859 Syphilis Experiments.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 77 (2003): 332-66.

Ginnaio, Monica. Sur les antidotes contre la peste: écrits médicaux sur la peste, XIVe-XVIIe siècle. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2021.

Giraud, Paul. Marseille malade de la peste (1720-1723). Paris: Presses universitaires de France (PUF): 2023.

Hobart, Brenton. La peste à la Renaissance; l'imaginaire d'un fléau dans la littérature au XVIe siècle. Paris: Classiques Garnier, 2020.

Wenger, A. Un règlement pour lutter contre la peste. Génève face à la grande peste de Marseille (1720-1723). Gesnerus 60.1-2 (2003):62-82.


United States / Etats Unis.

Barona Vilar, Josep Lluis. The Rockefeller Foundation, Public Health, and International Diplomacy, 1920-1945. London: Routledge, 2016.

Brabin, Bernard J. An Analysis of the United States and United Kingdom Smallpox Epidemics (1901-5): The Special Relationship that Tested Public Health Strategies for Disease Control. Medical History 64.1 (2020):1-31.

Brandt, Allan M. No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Colgrove, James. Epidemic City: The Politics of Public Health in New York. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011.

DeKok, David. Epidemic: A Collision of Power, Privilege, and Public Health. Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2011. [typhoid in early 20thC NYC].

Eyler, John M. ‘De Kruif’s Boast: Vaccine Trials and the Construction of a Virus.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80 (2006): 409-38.

Humphreys, Margaret. ‘A Stranger to Our Camps: Typhus in American History.’ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 80 (2006): 269-90.

Humphreys, Margaret. Yellow Fever and the South. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Jones, David Shumway. Rationalizing Epidemics: Meanings and Uses of American Indian Mortality since 1600. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Keith, Jeanette. Fever Season: The Story of a Terrifying Epidemic and the People who Saved a City [1878 Yellow fever]. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2012.

Kelton, Paul. Cherokee Medicine, Colonial Germs: An Indigenous Nation’s Fight Against Smallpox, 1518-1824. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2015.

Kroker, K. ‘The First Modern Plague: Epidemic Encephalitis in America, 1919-39.’ Transactions and Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 24 (2002): 63-7.

Markel, Howard. ‘Journals of the Plague Years: Documenting the History of the AIDS Epidemic in the United States.’ American Journal of Public Health 91 (2001): 1025-8.

Markel, Howard. Quarantine! East European Jewish Immigrants and the New York City Epidemics of 1892. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

McCoy, Charles Allan. Diseased States: Epidemic control in Britain and the United States. Amherst, MA: U Massachusetts Press, 2020.

Offit, Paul A. The Cutter Incident: How America's First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Opdycke, Sandra. The Epidemic of 1918: America's Experience in the Global Health Crisis. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Petriello, David. Bacteria and Bayonets: The Impact of Disease in American Military History. Philadelphia: Casemate, 2016.

Randall, David K. Black Death at the Golden Gate: The Race to Save America from the Bubonic Plague. New York: Norton, 2019.

Reverby, Susan. Examining Tuskegee: The Infamous Syphilis Study and Its Legacy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Risse, Guenter B. Driven by Fear: Epidemics and Isolation in San Francisco's House of Pestilence. Urbana: U Illinois P, 2016.

Rogers, Naomi. Dirt and Disease: Polio before FDR. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.

Rosenberg, Charles E. The Cholera Years: The United States in 1832, 1849, and 1866. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Scheffler, Robin Wolfe. A Contagious Cause: The American Hunt for Cancer Viruses and the Rise of Molecular Medicine. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2019.

Shah, Nayan. Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.



The websites of the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control are especially useful for historians of epidemic disease.




Center for System Science and Engineering of Johns Hopkins University provides excellent tracking data on current epidemics, including COVID-19. Click here or here.


Coronavirus Tracking by a volunteer group of first-generation Chinese immigrants in US is at.